Saturday, March 14, 2020

Definition and Examples of Deep Reading

Definition and Examples of Deep Reading Deep reading is the active process of thoughtful and deliberate reading carried out to enhance ones comprehension and enjoyment of a text. Contrast with skimming or superficial reading. Also called slow reading. The term deep reading was coined by Sven Birkerts in The Gutenberg Elegies (1994): Reading, because we control it, is adaptable to our needs and rhythms. We are free to indulge our subjective associative impulse; the term I coin for this is deep reading: the slow and meditative possession of a book. We dont just read the words, we dream our lives in their vicinity. Deep Reading Skills By deep reading, we mean the array of sophisticated processes that propel comprehension and that include inferential and deductive reasoning, analogical skills, critical analysis, reflection, and insight. The expert reader needs milliseconds to execute these processes; the young brain needs years to develop them. Both of these pivotal dimensions of time are potentially endangered by the digital cultures pervasive emphases on immediacy, information loading, and a media-driven cognitive set that embraces speed and can discourage deliberation in both our reading and our thinking.(Maryanne Wolf and Mirit Barzillai, The Importance of Deep Reading. Challenging the Whole Child: Reflections on Best Practices in Learning, Teaching, and Leadership, ed. by Marge Scherer. ASCD, 2009) [D]eep reading requires human beings to call upon and develop attentional skills, to be thoughtful and fully aware. . . .Unlike watching television or engaging in the other illusions of entertainment and pseudo-events, deep reading is not an escape, but a discovery. Deep reading provides a way of discovering how we are all connected to the world and to our own evolving stories. Reading deeply, we find our own plots and stories unfolding through the language and voice of others.(Robert P. Waxler and Maureen P. Hall, Transforming Literacy: Changing Lives Through Reading and Writing. Emerald Group, 2011) Writing and Deep Reading Why is marking up a book indispensable to reading? First, it keeps you awake. (And I dont mean merely conscious; I mean  awake.) In the second place, reading, if it is active, is thinking, and thinking tends to express itself in words, spoken or written. The marked book is usually the thought-through book. Finally, writing helps you remember the thoughts you had, or the thoughts the author expressed.(Mortimer J. Adler and  Charles Van Doren, How to Read a Book. Rpt. by Touchstone, 2014) Deep Reading Strategies [Judith] Roberts and [Keith] Roberts [2008] rightly identify students desire to avoid the deep reading process, which involves substantial time-on-task. When experts read difficult texts, they read slowly and reread often. They struggle with the text to make it comprehensible. They hold confusing passages in mental suspension, having faith that later parts of the text may clarify earlier parts. They nutshell passages as they proceed, often writing gist statements in the margins. They read a difficult text a second and a third time, considering first readings as approximations or rough drafts. They interact with the text by asking questions, expressing disagreements, linking the text with other readings or with personal experience.But resistance to deep reading may involve more than an unwillingness to spend the time. Students may actually misunderstand the reading process. They may believe that experts are speed readers who dont need to struggle. Therefore students assume that their own reading difficulties must stem from their lack of expertise, which makes the text too hard for them. Consequently, they dont allot the study time needed to read a text deeply.(John C. Bean, Engaging Ideas: The Professors Guide to Integrating Writing, Critical Thinking, and Active Learning in the Classroom, 2nd ed. Jossey-Bass, 2011 Deep Reading and the Brain In one fascinating study, conducted at Washington Universitys Dynamic Cognition Laboratory and published in the journal Psychological Science in 2009, researchers used brain scans to examine what happens inside peoples heads as they read fiction. They found that readers mentally simulate each new situation encountered in a narrative. Details about actions and sensation are captured from the text and integrated with personal knowledge from past experiences. The brain regions that are activated often mirror those involved when people perform, imagine, or observe similar real-world activities. Deep reading, says the studys lead researcher, Nicole Speer, is by no means a passive exercise. The reader becomes the book.(Nicholas Carr, The Shallows: What the Internet Is Doing to Our Brains. W.W. Norton, 2010 [Nicholas] Carrs charge [in the article Is Google Making Us Stupid? The Atlantic, July 2008] that superficiality bleeds over into other activities such as deep reading and analysis is a serious one for scholarship, which is almost entirely constituted of such activity. In this view engagement with technology is not just a distraction, or another pressure on an overloaded academic, but is positively dangerous. It becomes something akin to a virus, infecting the key critical engagement skills required for scholarship to function. . . .What is . . . not clear is if people are engaging in new types of activity that replace the function of deep reading.(Martin Weller, The Digital Scholar: How Technology is Transforming Scholarly Practice. Bloomsbury Academic, 2011)

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

International Trade Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

International Trade - Essay Example Eventually, globalization of trade worked in some countries better than others. Stiglitz takes a closer look at globalization and its effects leading to disparity of growth in different countries. Among the factors he identifies are the following. First, he talks about the lack of ready capital flow. Countries such as the US made readily available grants to commerce making it easy for new enterprises to emerge to take advantage of global trade. Secondly, Asian countries experienced rapid exponential economic growth due to their emphasis on industrialization rather than educational programs. Thirdly, he blames the neo-classical theories, which asked developing countries to emphasize on manpower training rather than capital flow to enterprise. The result was rampant joblessness, poverty and desperation in these countries; rather than the envisaged economic growth. Finally, he points out that the disparities between experiences countries in the New Economy depend on their own policies which enable them to take advantage of it to grow or otherwise. Stiglitz is right on many counts. His criticism of the neo-classical theory that portrayed globalization as the panacea for all the world’s pre-existing economic problems, such as the disparities in wealth, is justified. He points out that South American countries have emerged all the poorer compared to their northern neighbour the US. In Africa, the poverty situation is worsening. The main difference between those who have become richer and those who have stagnated is in terms of policies. Countries that had a readily available trained manpower base and credit capital like the US did better than others in the New Economy. As a result, economies of world nations diverged instead of converging. Secondly, he points out that countries such as China did not embrace international economic ideologies fully, but adopted positive ideas while

Monday, February 10, 2020

Cloud Computing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Cloud Computing - Essay Example Tayade (2014) explains that due to the emerging complexity of mobile devices, security trends are becoming more prevalent in various firms. Yang et al. (2011) explains that cloud computing in organizations has been essential in the fact that it assists easier access and processing of information. The cloud computing systems have also assisted in effective storage of sensitive information in order to provide minimum security operations. The organizations have been made possible to use enforceable password to unlock screens and implement automatic lock on the device using cloud computing. Cloud computing systems also result in fixed device encryption, which has been installed to maintain the confidentiality of sensitive data whenever there is any theft or loss of the device. Anti-virus, firewall, or anti-malware software is installed in cloud computing systems (Tayade, 2014). Performing system scans has been beneficial since it assists check for any malicious threats or viruses. Ren et al. (2011) argue that cloud computing users do not install applications directly from the internet without having any assurance that the product to be installed is safe or has no malicious code. As such, restrictions on cloud computing users are advantageous because the operators can download applications from any websites and perform third-party software installation (Tayade, 2014). Cloud computing has become an attractive target for many cybercriminals, and the susceptibility of open source application is well documented. This occurs mainly in organizations that use mobile and cloud computing appliances to download apps without applying security practices like installing antivirus software to their devices (Tayade, 2014). Ren et al. (2011) indicate that when suspicious threat occurs, the organizations can limit and restrict mobile access by customers by applying some hardening steps to mitigate security trends. Various organizations face refined cyber security problems

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Defending the Play Trifle Essay Example for Free

Defending the Play Trifle Essay In the play, Trifles by Susan Glaspell, is about a murder mystery of Mr. Wright. The men; the court attorney, sheriff, and Mr. Hale, a neighorbor to the Wright family, and the women; the sheriff’s wife, Mrs. Peter and Mrs. Hale, solve the mysery in two very different ways. The men show up at the house as a crime scene, and only focusing on the bigger, important elements of a murder mystery. As Mr. Hale was trying to explain everything he saw in the house that morning of Mr. Wright’s death, he said â€Å"She was rockin’ back and forth. She had her apron in her hand and was kind of – pleating it (1154)†. Meanwhile, Mr. Hale was looking for Mr. Wright, Mrs. Wright was kind of subtle and said you can’t. Mr. Hale was confused. All she said then was he has been murder. All three men go upstairs to talk and investigate the body. One the otherhand, the women approach the house as a home, and focusing on the trifles, meaning small detail or unimportant, such as baking mess, unfinished sewing, and unwashed pans cleaning. As the women are worried about Mrs. Wright’s trifles in the house the men like to make fun of them. For example, Hale stated, â€Å"Well, women are used to worryin’ over trifles (1156)†. Mrs. Wright loved making preserves as her fruit froze in the freezer and made a big mess that the two women were worried about, so the sheriff said â€Å"Well, can you beat the women! Held for murder and worryin’ about her perserves (1155)’. In society, as you can see, men tend to ingore the women’s world, blind to the truth before their eyes. A critic once said Trifles is a lousy play because by the third page we already know who done it, so there isn’t much reason the sit through the rest of the play. A murder mystery does not have to keep the reader in suspense to who the culprit was, but why the culprit did it. The key element in the play Trifles is motive, the reason or emotion that drives a person to do something. What made Mrs. Wright drive to kill her husband? As the men look for any possible motive, the women talk to one another about Mrs. Wright. They end up finding a bird cage with a broken door, but they find no bird. Another possible movite uncovered by the women is the discovery of the dead bird. They found the bird, dead, somebody had strangled the bird. So, just because a murder happens early, does not make it a bad play. Works Cited X. J. Kennedy. Dana Gioia. LITERATURE An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing. Trifles. 12 ed. New Jersey: Pearson. 2013. Pages1153-1163.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Raymond Chandlers Writing Techniques in The Big Sleep Essay -- Chandl

Raymond Chandler's Writing Techniques in The Big Sleep      Ã‚  Ã‚   I sat at my desk, wondering what I could possibly write about The Big Sleep. I mean, there are so many possibilities. This guy, Raymond Chandler's writing style is so different from anything I have ever read before, that there are many things that I could talk about. I heard that Chandler once said, "I live for syntax!" It does not surprise me that he would say something along those lines. I mean, this writer is all over the page with different writing techniques. Whether it is his use of similes or the lack of punctuation, Chandler's novel is easy to read, process and enjoy.    I wouldn't say that this book requires an in-depth reading to understand the plot. The style that Chandler writes in is easily understood. His narrative voice is almost what I would consider conversational. Conversational, in the sense that everyday speech is very similar to the written language of this novel; it is uncommon to write the same way that one talks. It was easy for me to hear the voices of Marlowe and Vivian in my head; I could hear the sarcastic tones of the protagonist as I read. The flow of this novel does not have the normal novelistic style that most books consist of; that is, layered, detailed and a bit wordy sometimes. It is written very much how people talk to one another. Chandler uses a lot of slang, not in conversations, but in his narrative.    In order to easily describe the way Chandler writes it is best to break down a few bits and pieces of the text. For instance, the lack of punctuation throughout Chandler's text is an example of his style. It takes a while to find a semi-colon or a colon anywhere in the novel. I have already ... ...the spice of life, is it not? Chandler is probably one of the easiest writers to remember; once you have read Chandler, it is not easy to forget the style he writes in. The story itself may be forgotten, but his language, his rhythm, his style, never is. Chandler was lucky in the sense that he was in the right place at the right time, his books became well-known and well read almost immediately after publication.    These days, it is much harder to have such an instant success as Chandler did. Chandler was lucky indeed, but it was not entirely luck that put him at the top of the lists for one of the best hard-boiled detective writers ever. His witty, charismatic style did that for him.    Works Cited    Chandler, Raymond. The Big Sleep. New York: Vintage Books, 1996. Kemp, William. The Writing Process: Chandler 202. January 14, 1999

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

AP Government Chapter 2 Summary Essay

Within the first pages of this chapter, we are introduced with the topic of the constitution and actions of Gregory Lee Johnson. The case of Gregory Lee Johnson is about that of him burning an American flag and protesting that when the government became involved, it was against his freedom of speech. This is where the constitution of the United States comes into play and supersedes the ordinary law. The question though, what exactly is a constitution? A constitution is a nation’s basic laws. Essentially it creates political institutions, provides rights for citizens and holds power within the government. The constitution also holds the unwritten traditions and precedents that have been established. Most people do not always agree with how the constitution is written and don’t always agree with how the government is ran, but this constitution is the basis of how all things are ran. Next is the Declaration of Independence. Between 1775 and 1776 there was a tremendous amount of discontent with the English and the Continental Congress was in session for that continuous year. When all the men were coming up with ideas and a basis for the Declaration of Independence, most ideas and propositions were adopted from John Locke who argued that humans have all natural rights and are not dependent upon the government. Later this Declaration was written primarily by Thomas Jefferson and adopted on July 4th, 1776. Essentially this was written to announce and justify the revolution that was happening. Lastly, all the colonists needed foreign assistance to conquest the most powerful nation in the world. Going back to fully understand Locke and his ideas, we take a look at the idea that Locke was one of the most influential philosophers of this time. John Locke built most of his philosophy on the idea of natural rights. Natural rights are rights inherent of people and who are not dependent on the government. Also, John argued that the government should be built upon the consent of the governed, meaning that people agree on who their rulers are. He also argued that our nation should have a limited government so that there are restrictions on what a ruler can do. As Locke was coming up with his philosophy, he came up with a brilliant idea that governments should have standing laws in which people know if an act is acceptable or not before doing it. Now we come to the point of the government the failed. Congress was needed to make a plan for the permanent union of the states and the first plan to the constitution was the Articles of Confederation. The Articles only initially established a legislature with one house which was a big problem at the time and would be a big problem today. There was no president at the time, no national court and the powers were extremely limited for the national legislature. After the states ratified this Article, problems were still proceeding. This included that Congress was only able to maintain an army and navy, no more. All in all, Congress had no power. The only advantage to the Articles of confederation was that when the new Constitution was written, the writers knew the things to avoid. Next was the issue of economic turmoil and the Shays rebellion. After the war, many farmers were left with a debt that could not be paid and were threatened that their farms would be lost. So in order to try and pay this, many printed paper money which was worthless and tried to pay the outstanding debt back. Now the farmers felt a sigh of relief when the Shays rebellion took place. This was a series of attacks on courthouses to prevent the judges from having farmers and their families foreclose on the farms. Now we officially decided to make a constitution at the Philadelphia convention. Fifty five delegates were chosen to write what became the U.S. Constitution. Most these people were wealthy planters or successful merchants and lawyers. Most issue differed in the aspect of debates on big-issues to the self-interest of very small issues. Most men in fact did not share the same political aspect and some issues arose from this. In fact, all these men had a very cynical view point of human nature and believed that men love power. As the words of this document were written,  factions arose up. Factions are parties or interest groups. Most of the delegates believed that if a government is ran by factions, the government would be prone to instability, tyranny and that of violence. So, within the Declaration of Independence, there are three issues that arise. First was the issue of equality. This issue was basically that of states coming up with different plans and hoping it would work. The New Jersey Plan, the Virginia Plan and the Connecticut Compromise were all different in aspects of what should be done. Another issue was that of the economy. The writers of the Constitution committed to a strong national government and agreed that the economy was in complete disaster and disarray. The problem was that paper money was worthless in some states and Congress was having issues raising money due to the fact the economy was in a recession. And lastly were the rights of an individual. The Founders agreed that it was important to safeguard individualism and keep threats away from personal freedom. The Constitution offers protections, including that of upholding the right to a trial by jury and that of not looking at a person’s religion to withhold them from a governmental position. Now we take a look at the ratification of the Constitution. In order for this Constitution to be processed, it needed to be ratified by nine of the thirteen states. But there were problems that occurred for this to be ratified because there were federalists and anti-federalist. Federalists supported the Constitution and anti-federalists did not. This is where the big issue arose. Some of the differences these groups faced were one being that anti-federalists preferred a strong government while the federalists preferred a weak one. Another problem was that the anti-federalists wanted a direct election of governmental officials and the federalists did not. Lastly was the inclusion of the Bill of Rights. The Bill of Rights was the first ten amendments to the Constitution in response to the concerns of the anti-federalists. The amendments actually give us the basic liberties, that of freedom of speech or religion. Yet the road to the Constitution and the ratification of it was not easy, the work of these men made it possible and fought to make it work. Without the work of these men, We would not be  where we are today and life as we know it would be completely different.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Greek Myths And Its Impact On American Culture - 1155 Words

Greek myths are stories that explain the meaning of life and teach moral lessons through the values of heroes, gods and mortals. In Ancient Greece, myths were an important part of the culture, first being told orally and in poems, then seen in architecture and theatre. Homer, the Greek poet, wrote epic poems such as the Iliad and the Odyssey, which are still revered and read extensively today. Greek myths have carried over to contemporary American culture, appearing in movies, children’s toys, clothing and books and the values of Greek myths are entrenched in today’s society. Notably, heroism is a prominent value that plays a major role in Greek mythology and continues to influence American culture today, as heroes inspire society with their nobility, bravery and patriotism. Heroism is an important value in Greek mythology and is seen in Greek heroes, including Hercules, Achilles, Odysseus and many more. Heroism is defined as the attributes of a hero, consisting of brav ery, compassion, cunning and strength. In Greek mythology, there are countless battles in which these qualities are prevalent. Hercules uses his strength to strangle the Nemean Lion, Jason shows his bravery while retrieving the Golden Fleece from the distant land of Colchis, and Theseus uses cunning when making his way through the labyrinth and killing the Minotaur. In the story of Perseus, King Polydectes sends Perseus on a dangerous mission to bring him the head of Medusa. Athena guides Perseus to theShow MoreRelatedHercules in Popular Culture1719 Words   |  7 PagesI chose to explore and analyze instances of the great Greek/Roman hero, Heracles (Hercules), appearing in popular culture and the effect his myths had on early civilizations. Considered by most to be the greatest of the Greek folk heroes, Hercules was the embodiment of masculinity and physical power. 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